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Green IT.

Research

Green IT

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Professor Colin Pattinson heads up the Green IT research group. It has a long history of work in IT energy measurement and management, which provides the foundation for the group’s research focus on IT sustainability issues.
 
Recent research work includes the development of a framework for reducing energy consumption and the carbon footprints of organisations that are moving towards embracing Green IT. The group has conducted research into the energy consumption of thin-client technology. This involved rigorous experimental analysis to provide real data on the comparative costs of running thin and thick client systems in a typical university environment.
 
Current research explores various metering approaches (or topology) and monitors the power consumption in different parts of a data centre. It also involves a web-enabled monitoring system, data centre efficiency measurements and metrics and the use of analysed real data to drive improvements in data centre efficiency. This research work is being extended to encompass the development of an intelligent system to monitor and control energy consumption in a data centre.

Themes

  • Green IT: Greening of IT.
  • Energy efficient software development.
  • Energy efficient hardware.
  • Power aware networks.
  • Energy efficient Cloud computing.
  • Energy efficient data storage.
  • Green IT: Greening by IT through automation, control, and embedded systems
  • Green IT strategy.
  • Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, measurements, tools and metrics for energy efficiency and environmental impact.
  • IT energy monitoring, control and management.

Green IT Publications

Plus Icon 2015
  • Cristea, V., Pattinson, C. and Kor, A.L. (2015) Energy Consumption Of Mobile Phones. In: The International SEEDS Conference, September 17-18, 2015, Leeds Beckett University.
  • Dastbaz, M., Pattinson, C. and Akhgar, B. (2015) Green Information Technology A Sustainable Approach. Morgan Kaufmann.
  • Hosseinian Far, A. and Jahankhani, H. (2015) Quantitative and Systemic Methods for Modeling Sustainability. In: Dastbaz, M., Pattinson, C. and Akhgar, B. eds. Green Information Technology: A Sustainable Approach. Morgan Kaufmann.
  • Kor, A., Pattinson, C., Imam, I., AlSaleemi, I. and Omotosho, O. (2015) Applications, Energy Consumption and Measurement. In: IEEE International Conference on Information and Digital Technologies (IDT 2015), July 7-9, 2015, Zilina, Slovakia. (Conference paper).
  • Kor, A.L., Pattinson, C., Pope, R. and Schulte, A. (2015) An Integrated Healthcare System and Services for Empowering Patients. In: International Conference on Health Informatics and Medical Systems (HIMS), July 27-30, 2015, Las Vegas.
  • Marino, M.D. and Li, K.C. (2015) Implications of Shallower Memory Controller Transaction Queues in Scalable Memory Systems. Journal of Supercomputing, August.
  • Marino, M.D. and Li, K.C. (2015) Reducing Memory Controller Transaction Queue Size in Scalable Memory Systems. In: World Congress on Information Technology Applications and Services - World-IT 2015 - "Advanced Mobile, Communications, Security, Multimedia, Vehicular, Cloud, IoT, and Computing, March , 2015, Jenju, Korea.
  • Muhd Azmi, S., Bujang, N., Kor, A. and Pattinson, C. (2015) A Comparative Study on the Energy Efficiency of 4th Gen Intel Core Processor vs 3rd Gen Intel Core Processor. In: International Conference on Embedded Systems and Applications (ESA), July 27-30, 2015, Las Vegas.
  • Olaoluwa, P., Kor, A.L. and Pattinson, C. (2015) A Comparative Study on the Energy Consumption of PHP Single and Double Quotes. In: The 11th IEEE International Conference on Green Computing and Communications (GreenCOM), December 11-13, 2015, Sydney.
  • Olauluwa, P., Kor, A.L. and Pattinson, C. (2015) PHP Single and Double Quotes: Does It Make a Difference to Energy Consumption? In: The International SEEDS Conference, September 17-18, 2015, Leeds Beckett University.
  • Pattinson, C., Kor, A. and Cross, R. (2015) Critical Issues for Data Center Energy Efficiency. In: Dastbaz, M., Pattinson, C. and Akhgar, B. eds. Green Information Technology: A Sustainable Approach. Morgan Kaufmann.
  • Pattinson, C., Kor, A. and Braddock, R. (2015) Community Wide Area Network and Mobile ISP. In: Dastbaz, M., Pattinson, C. and Akhgar, B. eds. Green Information Technology: A Sustainable Approach. Morgan Kaufmann.
  • Pattinson, C., Cross, R. and Kor, A. (2015) Thin Client and Energy efficiency. In: Dastbaz, M., Pattinson, C. and Akhgar, B. eds. Green Information Technology: A Sustainable Approach. Morgan Kaufmann.
  • Schmidt, M., Pattinson, C. and Kor, A.L. (2015) A Web-Based Environmental Toolkit To Support Smes In The Implementation Of An Environmental Management System. In: The International SEEDS Conference, September 17-18, 2015, Leeds Beckett University.
  • Voderhobli, K. (2015).  Achieving the Green Theme Through the Use of Traffic Characteristics in Data Centers. In: Dastbaz, M., Pattinson, C. and Akhgar, B. eds. Green Information Technology: A Sustainable Approach. Morgan Kaufmann.
  • Voderhobli, K. (2015). The Need for Traffic Based Virtualisation Management for Sustainable Clouds, International Journal of Organizational and Collective Intelligence, Oct-Dec 2015, Vol 5, No. 4. IGI Global.
  • Voderhobli, K. (2015). An SNMP Based Traffic Characterisation Paradigm for Green-Aware Networks. In Chang, V., et. al (eds.). Delivery and Adoption of Cloud Computing Services in Contemporary Organizations, IGI Global.  
Plus Icon 2014
  • Gordon, N., Pattinson, C. and Kor, A. (2014) Sustainable and Green Information Systems: Preparing the next generation of practitioners. In: Proceedings of HEASTEM 2014, April 30 - May 1, 2015, Edinburgh.
  • Hosseinpournajarkolaei, A., Jahankhani, H. and Hosseinian-Far, A. (2014) Vulnerability considerations for power line communication's supervisory control and data acquisition. International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics, 6 (2), pp. 104-114.
  • Kor, A. (2014) Freshness Indicators. September 2014, Consultancy Technical Report.
  • Marino, M.D. and Li, K.C. (2014) Insights on Memory Controller Scaling for Multicore Embedded Systems. International Journal on Embedded Systems, 6 (4) August.
  • Pattinson, C. and Kor, A. (2014) Introduction to Green IT Chapter. [CC Licence: Attribution, Non-commercial (CC-BY-NC)].
  • Pattinson, C. and Kor, A. (2014) Legal and Regulatory Framework for Green IT. [CC Licence: Attribution, Non-commercial (CC-BY-NC)].
Plus Icon 2013
  • Marino, M.D. (2013) RFiof: An RF Approach to I/O-pin and Memory Controller Scalability for Off-chip Memories. In: Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Computing, May 14-16, 2013, Ischia, Italy. May.
  • Marino, M.D. (2013) RFiof: An RF Approach to I/O-pin and Memory Controller Scalability for Off-chip Memories. In: Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Computing, May 14-16, 2013, Ischia, Italy. May.
  • Pattinson, C., Cash, G. and Cross, R. (2013) Heat and Light by timetable. August 2013, JISC Technical Report.
  • Pattinson, C. and Cross, R. (2013) Measuring Data Centre Efficiency. JISC Technical Report.
Plus Icon 2012
  • Bekaroo, G., Bokhoree, C. and Pattinson, C. (2012) Towards green IT organisations: A framework for energy consumption and reduction. International Journal of Technology, Knowledge and Society, 8 (3), pp. 13-26.
  • Hosseinian-Far, A., Pimenidis, E. and Jahankhani, H. (2012) Influence diagrams: Predictive approach in decision support systems. Intl Journal of Strategic Management and DSS, 17, pp. 16-22.
  • Jahankhani, H., Pimenidis, E. and Hosseinian-Far, A. (2012).  A Probabilistic Knowledge-Based Information System for Environmental Policy Modeling and Decision Making.
  • Marino, M.D. (2012) RFiop: RF-memory path to address on-package I/O pad and memory controller scalability. In: Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Computer Design: VLSI in Computers and Processors, December pp. 183-188.
  • Marino, M.D. (2012) On-package scalability of RF and inductive memory controllers. In: Proceedings - 15th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design, DSD 2012, December pp. 923-930.
  • Owusu, F. and Pattinson, C. (2012) The current state of understanding of the energy efficiency of cloud computing. In: Proc. of the 11th IEEE Int. Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications, TrustCom-2012 - 11th IEEE Int. Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Communications, IUCC-2012, November pp. 1948-1953.
  • Scoton, F., Kobayashi, J. and Marino, M.D. (2012) Adapted discrete-based entropy cache replacement algorithm. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on High Performance Computing and Simulation, HPCS 2012, October pp. 534-540.
Plus Icon 2011
  • Forbacha, S. and Pattinson, C. (2011) Simulation of energy-aware mobile agent based network management system. In: Proceedings - AMS 2011: Asia Modelling Symposium 2011 - 5th Asia International Conference on Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation, September pp. 203-208.
  • Gordon, N., Pattinson, C. and Kor, A. (2011) Sustainability Issues in the Computing Curriculum. In: Annual Higher Education Academy Subject Network for Information and Computer Sciences. Conference (ICS), August 23-25, 2011, Belfast. (Conference paper).
  • Gordon, N., Pattinson, C. and Kor, A. (2011) Sustainable and Green Information Systems: Preparing the next generation of practitioners. In: Annual Higher Education Academy Subject Network for Information and Computer Sciences Conference (ICS),, August 23-25, 2011, Belfast. (Conference paper).
  • Jahankhani, H. and Hosseinian-Far, A. (2011) Efficiency Analysis of the Photovoltaic Systems for Carbon Footprint Reduction (Case Study: University of East London). In: Forum E-Conference, Sciforum Electronic Conferences Series.
  • Pattinson, C. (2011) Sustainability in the IT/CS curriculum. In: 7th China – Europe International Symposium on Software Industry Orientated Education, May 23-24, 2011, University of Northampton. (Keynote).
  • Pattinson, C. (2011) Scientific Cloud Computing - Environmental Aspects of Network Infrastructure. Bristol, UK. (Invited presentation).
  • Pattinson, C. and Cross, R. (2011) Does "thin client" mean "energy efficient"? March 2011, JISC Technical Report.
  • Pattinson, C. and Cross, R. (2011) Measuring the Energy Use of Thin and Thick Client Desktops. In: Proceedings of the 27th Annual UK Performance Engineering Workshop, July 7-8, 2011, Bradford, UK. July.
  • Pattinson, C., Oram, D. and Ross, M. (2011) Sustainability and social responsibility in raising awareness of green issues through developing tertiary academic provision: A case study. International Journal of Human Capital and Information Technology Professionals, 2 (4), pp. 1-10.
Plus Icon 2010 and before
  • Al-Sayyed, R. and Pattinson, C. (2005) Performance evaluation of redundancy in wireless connection. In: 2005 International Conference on Wireless and Optical Communications Networks, December pp. 89-93.
  • Braddock, R. and Pattinson, C. (2009) Bridging the community network gap with FOSS & mobile ISPs. In: NGMAST 2009 - 3rd International Conference on Next Generation Mobile Applications, Services and Technologies, September 15-18, 2009, Cardiff, Wales, UK. pp. 509-514.
  • Gebhart, M., Maher, B., Koons, C., Diammond, J., Grattz, P., Marino, M.D., Ranganathan, N., Behnam, R., Smith, A., Burril, J., Keckler, S., Burger, D. and McKinley, K. (2009) An evaluation of the TRIPS computer system. In: Proceedings of the 14th international conference on Architectural support for programming languages and operating systems, March 9-11, 2009, Pittsburgh. March Association for Computing Machinery, pp. 1-12.
  • Hosseinian-Far, A., Jahankhani, H. and Pimenidis, E. (2010) Sustainability Modelling of Solar Projects. In: Energy in the City: The Solar Energy Society Conference C92, June 23-24, 2010, London South Bank University. Oxford Brookes University.
  • Huang, C.-.Y. and Pattinson, C. (2005) Advanced Technologies for e-Manufacturing. In: Cheng, K. ed. e-Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications. Southampton: Wit Pr/Computational Mechanics.
  • Marino, M.D. and Silva, A.F. (2003) A preliminary evaluation of the speedup of a distributed simulator for reliability analysis. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Processing Techniques and Applications, 3 December pp. 1202-1207.
  • Marino, M.D. (2004) Proposal of a distributed load balancing application for managing power in grids. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Processing Techniques and Applications, PDPTA'04, 1 December pp. 278-282.
  • Marino, M.D. (2006) 32-core CMP with multi-sliced L2: 2 and 4 cores sharing a L2 slice. In: Proceedings - Symposium on Computer Architecture and High Performance Computing, December pp. 141-148.
  • Marino, M.D. (2006) L2-cache hierarchical organizations for multi-core architectures. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 4331 LNCS December pp. 74-83.
  • Pattinson, C. and Robinson, L. (2008) A study of the effectiveness of Wake up on lan" as a means of power management. In: ICE-B 2008 - Proceedings of the International Conference on e-Business, December pp. 73-76.
  • Pattinson, C. and Siddiqui, T. (2008) A performance evaluation of an ultra-thin client system. In: ICE-B 2008 - Proceedings of the International Conference on e-Business, December pp. 5-11.
  • Pattinson, C. (2010) ICT, Sustainability and the Digital Economy. In: SustainablIT: Green and Sustainable Computing - education and practice.
  • Pattinson, C., Braddock, R. and Kor, A. (2010) JANET UK Wireless LAN Project, Technical Report. Disseminated to JANET UK as a User Manual (for managers and engineers). June 2010, JANET UK.

Projects

  • Cisco Systems (January 2009-January, 2010), Energy Wise Assessment (review of Energy Wise energy monitoring software)
  • JISC (January 2010-December 2010), Energy Use of Thin Client Technologies (“Does Thin Client Mean Energy Efficiency?”)
  • JISC (February 2011-February 2012), “Heat and Light by Timetable”
  • JISC (February 2011-October 2012), “Measuring Data Centre’s Efficiency”
  • JANET UK (Jan 2009-Jan 2010),   development of low-cost, low-energy portable wireless LAN
  • HEIF (January 2009-January 2010), equipping a “mobile technology showcase” vehicle, including low energy IT support
  • HEA (August 2010-July 2011), developing learning objects addressing sustainability
  • EU Erasmus Mundus (2012 - 2019)–PERCCOM
  • EU TEMPUS (2012 - 2015) – GreenCo
  • EU FP7 e-Infranet project (July – December 2013), project leader for development of educational programme (EISTER)
  • Smart Freshness indicators (2014)
  • Software Engineering KTP Intelligent System Academic Advisor (Premier Farnell) “Legislation Compliance Tool” with Stuart Leader (February 2015-June 2016)

PhD Students

Current

  • An Intelligent Control and Monitoring System for a Data Centre Energy Efficiency by Nabil Hadj Ahmed (DOS: Professor Colin Pattinson)
  • Snmp-based monitoring in Cloud Computing by Asif Iqbal (DOS: Professor Colin Pattinson)
  • Energy consumption and performance evaluation of wireless and ad-hoc sensor networks for limited range and range free localization methods by Muhammad Amjad (DOS: Professor Colin Pattinson)

Graduated

  • Male Galamoyo (2015, DOS: Professor Colin Pattinson)
  • Owusu Francis (2015, DOS: Professor Colin Pattinson)

Case Study: Data Centre Energy Efficiency

“You cannot control or manage what you cannot measure”

This is a project funded under the JISC Greening ICT initiative. It involves monitoring power consumption in different parts of our University data centre and varying the metering topology during the project. Some metering is done at high granularity (measuring power consumption of individual devices and locations). In other cases, the metering is done at lower granularity (giving the combined power consumption of aggregated devices and locations from a single meter).

The accurate measurement of the power consumption of the three systems within the data centre (i.e. computing, mechanical and electrical) enables the calculation of the Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) of the centre, which is also used as a comparative measure of energy efficiency for different parts of the centre. Another focus of the project is the temperature parameter and its effect on improving the energy consumption of the data centre using PUE.

Details of the methodology are found in these sources: Pattinson and Cross, 2013; Pattinson, et. al, 2015. At the outset of this project, new metering was installed in the Woodhouse Building’s LV switch panel and server room. The system schematic diagram of the metering topology is shown in the publications listed below.

All metered data for the Woodhouse Building is collated via the EGX300 gateway, which is configured to work with the web query function of Microsoft Office 2010. A spreadsheet is created that uses the web query command to auto update with real time information from the meters logging interval. When the spread sheet is opened it automatically connects to the EGX server and updates with logged data from the meters. PUE is a measure of how efficiently a data centre uses its power with respect to the amount of power that is actually used by the ICT equipment. It is a ratio of the total facility power to ICT equipment power.

Research Impact

Immediate impact of the research is:

The average Computer Room Air Handlers energy consumption seems to increase when the set point temperature is increased from 24°C to 26°C. However, the total ICT energy consumption seems to be constant, thus increasing the PUE.

A change in the type of cooling system (from Airedale AH DF units ((80kW Cooling Duty) with Trend OEM controls) to a new evaporative cooling system brings about a decrease of PUE from 1.7696 to 1.3262, which indicates increased energy efficiency.

The results from this experiment provide pointers to most effective changes in data centre configuration. However, the effects of changes in the set point temperatures would have to be explored further over a longer timespan and taking into consideration the different seasons of the year. This project also provides valuable insights into how a real data centre behaves in practice. Additionally, it shows the use of a range of benchmark techniques for comparison.

Recommendations for future work will be:

  1. extend the timeline for data collection;
  2. investigate the effects of virtualisation of the servers on PUE;
  3. include a wider range of parameter changes to the data centre configuration.

Publications arising from research

Book Chapter
Pattinson, C., Kor, A. K., and Cross, R. (2015). Critical Issues for Data Center Energy Efficiency. In Dastbaz, M., Akhgar, B., and Pattinson, C. (eds.). Green Information Technology: A Sustainable Approach, Morgan Kaufmann

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