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Research Case studies

Master Women Coaches' Experiences of the Coaching Culture


The purpose of this study, grounded in feminist cultural studies, was to interrogate the paucity of women in high performance coaching.

Based upon the qualitative experiences and perspectives of national women coaches from a variety of team sports in the UK, the study sought to understand how women coaches have negotiated social expectations and cultural norms of what is means to be a woman in order to reach their position, to interrogate the challenges and complexities women may face in attempting to coexist in elite positions and to propose solutions for the empowerment of aspiring women coaches.

Research outputs


  • Norman, L. (2013). Understanding the experiences of and challenges for women coaches: A UK context. “Where are all the women?” conference. Malmo University and the World Village of Women’s Sport, Sweden.
  • Norman, L. (2012). Developing female coaches: Solutions from women themselves. Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education, 3 (3), 227 – 238.
  • Norman, L. (2012). A Crises of Confidence: Women Coaches’ Responses to their Engagement in Resistance. Sport, Education & Society. DOI 10.1080/13573322.2012.689975.
  • Norman, L. (2010) Bearing the Burden of Doubt: Women Coaches' Experiences of Gender Relations. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 81(4), 506-517.
  • Norman, L. (2010) Feeling Second Best: Elite Women Coaches' Experiences. Sociology of Sport Journal, 27(1), 89-104.
  • Norman, L. (2008) The UK Coaching System Is Failing Women Coaches. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 3(4), 447-464.
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