To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 video

PhD Research at the International Centre for Research in Events, Tourism and Hospitality (ICRETH)

ICRETH has approximately forty registered doctoral students from more than ten countries. They are supervised by a team of experienced and internationally recognised academics who are actively engaged in related research themselves. Our doctoral students work on a variety of theoretical and applied issues related to events, tourism and hospitality.

We welcome applications from suitably qualified people to undertake doctoral work in the broad area of events, tourism and hospitality. If you have a project in mind and wish to be part of this stimulating research environment, please contact Professor Kevin Hannam, Director of our PhD programme, Professor Rhodri Thomas or any member of the team for an informal discussion.

Research Environment

The Centre offers a friendly and lively environment for its PhD researchers. You will normally be supervised by two academic members of staff. There are regular seminars to share and discuss issues on research methods as well as those presented by invited scholars on contemporary themes in events, tourism and hospitality. As PhD researchers you will be encouraged to participate in various seminars, workshops and conferences that take place in Leeds and also nationally and internationally. Networking events for PhD researchers are an important means of sharing ideas informally. The University also offers regular workshops and seminars for PhD researchers covering particular generic and complementary skills in accordance with the Joint Statement of the UK Research Councils’ Skills Training Requirements for Research Students.

Leeds Beckett University library has a significant collection relating to events, tourism and hospitality, and is also a United Nations World Tourism Organisation Depository Library.


Applying for PhD study at the ICRETH involves completing an application form which can be completed online.

We consider each application on its individual merits and ensure that proposed projects match the research interests and expertise of academic members of staff at ICRETH.


The language of PhD supervision, writing and examination is English. It is essential that you are fluent in both written and spoken English. The application form therefore asks that you provide evidence of your English language proficiency. The university requires an IELTS score of 7.


If your application is successful, ICRETH will support you in your search for doctoral funding, and will alert you to any funding opportunities that come to our attention. The following list of potential funding sources may help you with your search:

Current Research Students

Felix Schubert
Felix Schubert (M.A.) majored in Geography and American Studies at the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz. During his studies he spent one year abroad at American University in Washington D.C. and took part in the Washington Semester Program. After graduating from the University of Mainz, Felix started writing his PhD at the School Of Events, Tourism and Hospitality at Leeds Beckett University. As a research assistant in Mainz, and also at Leeds Beckett University, Felix participated in the EU-funded MERGE Project and conducted research about Erasmus student mobility.

His research interests include international student mobilities, the mobilities of highly qualified young professionals as well as the internationalization of Higher Education. In his PhD Felix takes a closer look at Study Internship programmes in Washington D.C., as well as the travel biographies and mobilities of young elites.

Louise Dixey
Louise has twelve years international experience in donor-funded community tourism development projects, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. She has worked in Uganda, Kenya, Zambia, Botswana, Namibia, Mozambique and the Eastern Caribbean. Clients have included UNWTO, EU, USAID, CTO, the Travel Foundation and British Airways. Her research interests are community-based tourism, monitoring and evaluation, cultural heritage and the relationship between tourism discourses and project practices. Her PhD examines development of the Association of Small-Scale Enterprises in Tourism (ASSET), in The Gambia.

Nicole Haeusler
Nicole Häusler holds a Magister Artium (M.A.) in Social Anthropology and Communication (1992) from the University of Göttingen, Germany. She works since more than nine years as Responsible Tourism Consultant focusing on Tourism Management in Protected Areas, Tourism & Poverty Reduction and Community-based Tourism. Nicole has worked in Asia, Europe and South America as long-term and short-term consultant for international development agencies. She is a visiting lecturer in Sustainable Tourism at the Universities of Applied Sciences in Eberswalde and Bremen (Master Programmes).

Nicole began her PhD in October 2008. The aim of her PhD is to develop an applicable methodology for short-time case study research investigating the benefits of tourism for poverty reduction at micro level in developing countries. This involves attention to matters of research design, data collection, analysis, interpretation, and reporting. It will also acknowledge the various aspects of contextual factors which may affect this type of research in the ‘real world’, such as time constraints, intercultural dimensions, and organizational challenges.

Ann Hindley
Ann holds a MBA in International Tourism from the University of Wales (2005), a DipM from the Chartered Institute of Marketing (2010) and a PG Certificate in Higher Education from the University of Greenwich (2009). She is an Associate Member of the Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment, an Associate Member of the Chartered Institute of Marketing and a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy. Ann, who worked extensively for the travel industry both in an overseas capacity and with support organisations in the UK, now lectures at a Higher Education level in tourism.

Ann commenced her PhD in 2010 and is researching the reasons behind tourists visiting destinations which are disappearing due to climate change. She is examining tourist perceptions of climate change and of the impacts of tourism related travel, within the context of values, knowledge, beliefs and motivations and the relationship that these have with ethics.

Andreas Hofmann
Andreas Hofmann graduated with a MSc in Asian Politics at SOAS, London (2004) and studied abroad at Taiwan National University (2002) and Sogang University, Seoul (2005). After that he has worked seven years in tourism marketing, branding and development cooperation, e.g. for Kuoni in Zurich as product manager for sustainable and cultural travels and as tourism and destination development adviser for GIZ in Laos. Andreas is currently advising a medium sized CSR-certified culture and education tour operator in Vienna about product and organisational development while completing his PhD about the connection between tourism and advocacy in Laos.

Christina In Mei Iao
Christina Iao joined us from the University of Macao, to study the gaming behaviour of Chinese tourists in Macau. Macau is the only place in China where gambling is legalised and is extremely popular among visitors from the Chinese mainland, for whom gambling is a well-established leisure activity. Christina’s work aims to shed a light on the gaming behaviour of these tourists, and promises to bring fascinating new insights to our knowledge of gambling tourism. Christina is a lecturer at the Institute for Tourism Studies, and already has a publishing record on Macao’s tourism development.

Sam Isaac
Sam completed an MSc in Responsible Tourism Management at Leeds Beckett University in 2012. After that she worked for Northumberland Coast Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty where she researched and wrote their current Sustainable Tourism Strategy. Before studying tourism Sam spent several years overseas. During this time she taught English in China, Kazakhstan and Bosnia-Herzegovina, developed community projects for an eco-lodge in Indonesia and carried out conservation work in Australia.

Sam’s research is investigating ways the private sector could be more effectively engaged in destination management. Since the disbandment of regional development agencies in 2012 many destination management organisations (DMOs) have experienced reduced public sector funding and undergone significant restructuring. Using a case study approach she will determine the current capacity of DMOs to carry out key destination management functions and identify areas where the private sector could take more responsibility for management delivery.

Ko Koens
Ko Koens has been involved in sustainable tourism for over 10 years. He holds a MA in Environmental studies (2003) and a MSc in Social Psychology (2004), both from Utrecht University. After finishing his studies he worked as sustainability researcher and consultant for two and a half years before starting his PhD at Leeds Beckett University. His PhD focuses on tourism in the townships around Cape Town, South Africa. The main goal of the research is to investigate business cultures of small township tourism businesses as well as their market access strategies. Besides his work in South Africa, Ko has undertaken research on tourism in the Netherlands and Costa Rica. He also manages the website for the slum tourism network. His main research interests involve slum tourism, sustainability and tourism, small tourism businesses, power relations and the influence of (local) policy.

Marianna Kornilaki
Kornilaki studied at Bradford College for a HND in International Travel and Tourism Management before joining the BA (Hons) Managing International Tourism course at Leeds Beckett University. Her undergraduate research focused on sustainable development undertaken by tour operators in terms of their supply chains and the co-operation with the destination and she graduated in 2003 with a first class degree.

Her postgraduate research will develop a conceptual framework to investigate the attitudes and the responses of the small- and medium-sized tourism enterprises (SMTEs) in Crete to the challenges of sustainable tourism. The research aims to offer an understanding and explanation of the behaviour of SMTEs to sustainability, and identify the challenges they experience in their attempts to implement sustainable practices in their everyday operations. The findings will help public authorities, non-governmental organisations and tourism suppliers such as tour operators to understand the needs of small- and medium-sized companies and to encourage them to work together towards achieving sustainable tourism development. Marianna is currently working as a senior lecturer in Events Management at Leeds Beckett University.

Yanning Li
Yanning has been studying events management for nearly 8 years. She holds a Master of Science in International Events Management from the UK Centre for Events Management, Leeds; and a BA (Hons.) in Tourism Management, sub-major at Conference and Exhibition Management from Sun Yat-sen University, China. She has worked in various sectors including international hotels (Marriot and Intercontinental), Golf club and resort, international and national exhibitions, music festivals, community events, culture events, charity events, and travel agency. She also worked as a research assistant and guest speaker at Sun Yat-sen University. She has also conducted various research including destination planning of ancient villages and national park in China, tourism education development in China, ASEAN countries tourism development, tourists identity transformation in China, festival-goers motivation study.

Yanning began her PhD study in 2011 and is researching innovations in events, specifically in music festivals in China. She is investigating how innovations are implemented in music festivals, the stages of the implementation process and its determinants.

Ellie May
Ellie holds a MSc in Social Research and Evaluation (University of Huddersfield), PG Diploma in Human Resource Management (Leeds Beckett University) and a BA (Hons) Tourism Management (Leeds Beckett University). Her PhD research explores volunteerism at the London 2012 Paralympic Games. The research aims to offer insights into the profiles of volunteers whilst also exploring volunteers’ understandings and perceptions of disability, disability sport and athletes with disabilities. The research study was approved by the International Paralympic Committee.

Conor McTiernan
Having worked for a number of years in hotel management positions in Ireland and the UK, Conor returned to education and graduated with an MBS Tourism and Travel Management from the Smurfit Graduate Business School, University College Dublin in 2001. Following a period as an instructor for Failte Ireland, the Irish Tourism Development Authority, in 2004 he began a lecturing career in the School of Tourism, Letterkenny Institute of Technology. Since then Conor has undertaken many extra duties and has served as a member of Academic Council, trained students for national business competitions, worked as a consultant with a variety of regional community tourism development projects and presented papers at Irish national conferences. In 2011 Conor was the recipient of the Failte Ireland Applied Research Bursary which funded the development of a festival evaluation toolkit.

Conor’s PhD focuses on the role of trust in achieving the individual organisational goals of members of an Irish festival innovation system. Using social exchange theory as the underpinning theoretical framework, the research proposes to prepare a case study based on the AOIFE (Association of Irish Festival and Events) network.

Jackie Mulligan
Her PhD is examining the role of meetings in creativity and innovation. After reviewing the literature and developed a conceptual framework, she is currently gathering data at various international events.

Adam Richardson
Adam Richardson has enjoyed extensive experience within tourism having worked across North America, Europe, Asia and The Middle East in the fields of Adventure Tourism, Educational Tourism and mainstream Tour Operations. These years of hands-on experience have given Adam a unique insight into a wide range of tourism markets in both developed and developing countries. Academically, Adam has a strong background in economics, holding a BA (Hons) Economics with German from The University of Nottingham (2003) with particular focus on game theoretic modelling. Extended placements within accountancy and market research, along with 18 months corporate experience with a Danish multinational company, have given Adam a well-rounded understanding the major issues facing modern corporations. Adam is in the first year of his PhD which focuses on ethical consumerism and its applications within the field of tourism. The research looks at consumer motivation in purchasing tourism products from tour operators with a strong alignment with Responsible Tourism principles, as well as investigating the on-tour experience and how it impacts on future purchasing decisions.

Juliuska Sahertian
Juliuska previously studied English Literature at Petra Christian University, Surabaya, Indonesia as well as Tourism & Hospitality Management Education at Bournemouth University, UK. She has previously lectured and worked as a Course Coordinator in Tourism & Travel. After finishing her studies in tourism she worked as the Head of Department for 12 years in 2 private Universities, for the Hotel Management Department at Petra Christian University and Tourism and Hotel Management Department at Ciputra University. She has been a PhD student since October 2010 investigating the internationalisation of International Hospitality Management in the UK.

Omar Sakr
Omar Sakr is a Human Resources and an environmental expert in the hospitality industry and a longtime advocate of CSR and environmental programs. He is responsible for the sustainable GO GREEN program at Shtrumpf restaurants. He is also a Business, Hospitality & Tourism Full Time lecturer at Notre Dame University (NDU) – Louaize Lebanon. He is currently working on his PhD in Responsible Hospitality Management at (Leeds Met University, UK). His research topic is about CSR implementation in 4 & 5 star Hotels in Lebanon. He holds an MSc in Responsible Tourism Management (Leeds Met University, UK), a Master’s in Tourism Management (Perpignan, France) and an MBA from Notre Dame University. He is an executive board member of the Lebanese Youth Hostels Federation and a member of the Lebanese Mountain Trail Association.

Bernd Schwendinger
Bernd Schwendinger graduated from the University of Applied Sciences Vorarlberg in Austria with a master degree in business and project management. He also attended lectures at the Suffolk University in Madrid, the Fudan University in Shanghai, and the Peking University. After graduating in 2005 Bernd started working in a production plant for power tools in Austria. There he is in the position of a head of human resource development. Bernd has started his PhD-programme about the employee as a stakeholder of the external succession process in small-sized Austrian family businesses at LMU in July 2008 as part-time student (distance learning). He is examining the role of the non-family employee in the succession process and how this role is influencing the employee’s satisfaction.

Ubaldino Sequeira Couto
Dino, as likes to be called, has an MSc in Tourism Management and Marketing from the University of Nottingham and a BA (Hons) in Tourism Management from Staffordshire University. He has some experience working in the tourism and hospitality sector and moved on to pursue his ambition as a lecturer in events management at the Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao, where he teaches and nurtures future professionals as well as engages himself in research.

He started his PhD in January 2010 which examines the relationship between cultural festivals and the development of a community’s social capital using Macau as the basis of investigation under the supervision of Dr Emma Wood and Professor Rhodri Thomas. Dino’s interest in this topic stems from his background growing up in Macau where he witnesses and is intrigued by the harmonious interaction between the Portuguese and Chinese, and later the many immigrants coming into the city-state. Dino is also interested in events-related research in general, especially those on event meanings and attendees experience, impacts to the community and green issues. He’s also passionate in the longest-running and most prolific event in the city, the annual Macau Grand Prix as well as religious festivals like Catholic processions and traditional Chinese community festivities.

Beata Szymanska –Waczynska
Beata holds a Master’s Degree in Business Administration from the Polish Open University in Warsaw (Poland) and a Master of Business Administration (MBA) in Strategic Management from Oxford Brookes University (UK). She also holds a BA (Hons.) in Business Administration from the Polish Open University in Warsaw (Poland) and Oxford Brookes University (UK). She has almost ten years’ experience in marketing, mostly in the catering, retail and education industry. She has also teaching and training experience. She works as a Business Adviser for future entrepreneurs and small businesses.

Beata began her PhD in October 2007. After a break from her studies to give birth to twins Marta and Malgosia, she reenrolled in 2011 and is researching humour in advertising. She is examining the use of humorous celebrity endorsement in advertising as a tool in brand image change.

Lucia Tomassini
Lucia Tomassini, from Italy, joined as PhD student in October 2011. Her background is on architecture with a postgraduate degree in urban development and reconstruction. Lucia has worked several years as urban planner in an Italian municipality alternating several volunteer periods abroad. She volunteered in the Isiolo Distric, Kenya, on service delivery and in La Habana, Cuba, on urban rehabilitation. After the postgraduate, she worked in Ecuador in a ‘pro poor tourism’ project held by an Italian NGO. The project was aimed to involve local communities of Mitad del Mundo, an area close to Quito in the Pichincha Province, in community tourism activities.

Due to her interest in tourism potentialities in respect of development and conservation, she engaged in a PhD research aimed to investigate organizational system, effectiveness and impact of small-scale tourism projects. The research focuses on projects and interventions held by small tourism firms driven by ethical values, lifestyle motives and sustainability approaches. The case study of the research will be AITR – Associazione Italiana Turismo Responsabile – an Italian consortium gathering italian NGOs, tour operators and organizations committed to poverty reduction and sustainability.

Gerda Maria Warnholtz Brito
Gerda holds a Master’s Degree in Sustainable Tourism from León University, Spain (2010), and a BA in Tourism. She has over five years’ experience in tourism, mostly indigenous and rural community-based tourism. She has worked as a consultant and trainer for Mexican and International NGO’s, having the opportunity to work directly with both, program designers and practitioners, and the indigenous communities they intend to benefit. She is an expert in Mexican culinary culture and traditions, and an important part of her professional activities involve the rescue and conservation of intangible cultural heritage.

Gerda began her PhD in July 2011. Through the evaluation of the Indigenous Development Tourism Program run by the Mexican Government, she aims to better understand the mechanisms that influence the degree of success such projects have in communities with diverse and deeply rooted cultures and traditions. Based upon the information generated, she seeks to outline an alternative methodological route for the insertion of tourism projects, taking into account the needs and expectations of the communities, as well as their traditional world view.

David Bruce Whyte
Bruce Whyte has more than 20 years of experience in tourism planning and is now a PhD researcher at ICRETH. Bruce trained first as a journalist, then after a decade in media took a B.Sc. in Geography from the University of Victoria and joined the British Columbia provincial tourism ministry. After nine years as tourism resource planner, he stepped aside for seven years to work as a tourism planning consultant for communities and First Nations and obtain a graduate degree from Royal Roads University. He has been back with the provincial government since 2007 as tourism development officer and cultural tourism advisor.

Given his experience working to develop tourism which benefits host destinations, Bruce’s academic work will be exploring how the issues of authenticity and identity can contribute to tourism experiences which are both more interesting and informative for visitors, and more lucrative and rewarding for host communities. A special focus of his work will be on the contributions of the First Nations cultures of his region.

Bruce lives in Victoria, British Columbia, on Canada’s west coast, with his wife Sharon. His external interests include hiking, cycling, gold-panning, rock-hounding, gardening, camping, sailing and paddling.

Alistair Williams

Pei-Ying Wu
Wu Pei-Ying’s research interest is in measuring service quality in business events. Particularly, she is examining the exhibition sector and the perceptions and expectations of service quality between several main stakeholders, such as venue providers, organisers, exhibitors, and attendees, in Taiwanese exhibitions. The aim of the research is to identify service quality factors and compare stakeholders’ expectations and perceptions in exhibitions in Taiwan. Both qualitative and quantitative methods will be employed at different stages of her research.

Yoke Yun Yap

Yianna Orphanidou
Mrs Yianna Orphanidou is a lecturer and the Associate Head of the Hospitality, Tourism and Sports Management department at the University of Nicosia (Cyprus). She has been teaching since 1999 in several Higher Education institutions, private and public in Cyprus and abroad. Since 2010 she is the chairperson of the Institute of Hospitality, Cyprus Branch (former HCIMA). She is a holder of an HND in Hotel Management (F&B specialization) from HHIC, a BA (HONS) in Hospitality Management and she holds an MSc in Hospitality and Tourism Education from Surrey University (UK). She has an extensive practical and academic experience in the field of Tourism and Hospitality management. Her research interests includes the design and development of Tourism/hospitality management competency model, employability of Hospitality/Tourism graduates, design of curriculum for hospitality and tourism courses and interactive methods of teaching hospitality and tourism modules.

She is a board member of the Cyprus Sustainable tourism initiative since 2009, a non-profit organization that cooperates with the travel foundation utilizing projects that minimize the mass tourism impacts in Cyprus. Currently she is a PhD researcher at Leeds Beckett, UK in the area of tourism and hospitality education. Her research defines the need for recognition of the diversity of stakeholders and complexity of issues involved in the design, development and implementation of hospitality curricula by analysing and exploring through a qualitative research the Higher education environment of Cyprus.

PhD Alumni:

Sheree-Ann Adams
Sheree-Ann Adams has been actively involved in Grenada’s Tourism development over the past fifteen years. Her primary focus has been the successful positioning of destination Grenada in the soft adventure product niche for both the cruise ship passenger and stay-over visitors to the island. Until May 2006, she served in the capacity of Board Director with several key tourism organizations including the Grenada Hotel & Tourism Association and The Grenada Board of Tourism. Industry experience includes Cruise Lines (Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines), Hotels (Rex Resorts) and SME’s (Adventure Tours – Grenada). She studied Hotel Management at Barbados Community College, Tourism Management at the University of the West Indies and Environmental Management for Conservation and Recreation at Sheffield Hallam University. In 2009 she researched the sustainable tourism environmental initiative of Carbon Neutral Destinations in partial fulfilment of a MSc. in Tourism Management at Bournemouth University.

Her PhD explores the role of sustainability information on the perceptions and holiday decision making of UK Cruise Passengers. Most studies focus on the Economic, Environmental and Social Impacts of operating cruise ships within various destinations and less is known about the cruise passenger. Applying the research method of Conjoint Analysis to embarking passengers at England's Port of Southampton, the research examines consumer preferences and trade-off in relation to key cruise holiday attributes with the aim of determining the impact of global issues such as climate change and corporate responses notably Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility, has on the choice of cruise options.

Dr Elisa Burrai, UK
Dr Elisa Burrai completed her PhD in 2012 exploring residents' perceptions toward volunteer tourism and its impacts on hosts' lives in Cusco, Peru. She now works at a Part-time lecturer at the School of Events, Tourism and Hospitality at Leeds Beckett University and is a member of ICRETH.

Dr Jakob Calice, Austria
Dr Jakob Calice's thesis 'Purification and Tourism: Detox in the Austrian Gastein Valley' combined medical, leisure and alpine tourism. Jakob now works for the Austrian Government's Ministry for Research and Technology.

Dr Fernando Correia, UK
Dr Fernando Correia originally from Portugal finished his PhD in Tourism in 2009. His PhD assessed the effectiveness of the Charter in implementing sustainable tourism’s principles inside European protected areas and to identify the determinant variables for a successful implementation of such principles. Fernando now works as a Research Fellow in the Business School at the University of Exeter, UK.

Dr Suleiman Farajat, UK

Dr Fabian Frenzel, UK
Dr Fabian Frenzel originally from Germany finished his PhD in Tourism in 2010. His PhD examined the concept of the political tourist, the spaces they create and the journeys they undertake in geographical and ideological space. His work looks at the notion of anti-globalisation protest as a nexus for 'political tourism'. Fabian previously worked as a Senior Lecturer in Critical Tourism Studies at the University of the West of England and is now working as a Lecturer in the Political Economy of Organisation at the University of Leicester.

Dr Yi Fu, China
Dr Yi Fu finished her PhD in Tourism in 2012. Her PhD thesis was entitled Exploring Diaspora Communities' Festivals: Chinese New Year in England. Yi is now working as a Lecturer in Intangible Cultural Heritage at the Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology at Zhejiang University, China.

Dr Sunyoung Hong, South Korea
Dr Sunyoung Hong finished her PhD in 2012. Her research explored the relationship between the festivals and tourism and investigated the traditional Korean festival of ‘Ipchun-kut’ in Jeju Island, which is experiencing a large scale and rapid growth of inter-Asian regional tourism as a case study. Sunyoung now works as a Research Assistant on Jeju Island.

Dr Sangkyun Kim, Australia
Sangkyun originally from South Korea finished his PhD in Tourism in 2011. His PhD thesis analysed the influence of transnational media consumption on tourists’ behaviour. The main focus of the study is to investigate the underlying mechanisms and structures in the relationship between production values and consumption practices of transnational TV drama series. Sangkyun now works as a Lecturer in Tourism at Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.

Dr Donata Marletta, Italy
Dr Donata Marletta originally from Italy finished her PhD in Tourism in 2012. Donata’s research focused on the emergence of 'digital cultures' (visual art, video installation, electronic music) within the realms of tourism.

Dr Claudia Müller, Germany
Dr Claudia Müller completed her PhD in Tourism in 2011. Her PhD research focused on East-German tourists' experiences travelling to other socialist countries, especially Hungary, the Czech Republic and Bulgaria, between 1971 and 1989. Claudia is now working in Berlin, Germany for a globally operating company in medical equipment.

Dr Stefanos Nachmias, UK
Dr Stefanos Nachmias completed his PhD in hospitality in 2012 and too on a position as Head of the MA Leadership and Management Programme at York St John University.

Dr Josef Ploner, UK
Dr Josef Ploner originally from Austria completed his PhD in Tourism in 2011. Josef’s PhD researched aspects of tourism, heritage and landscape in the formation of regional and national identity in Austria. Josef currently works as a Research Assistant within the School of Education & Childhood at Leeds Beckett University, UK.

Dr Tamas Regi, UK
Dr Tamas Regi originally from Hungary finished his PhD in Tourism in 2011. Tamas’ PhD research focused on socio-cultural relations between the western world and East African societies, with particular reference to the Mursi people of South-Ethiopia. He works as an Associated Professor at Kodolanyi Janos University of Applied Sciences in Hungary.

Dr Anna Richter, Germany
Dr Anna Richter completed her PhD in Event Management in 2011. Her PhD was entitled The politics of ‘participation’ in Liverpool, European Cultural Capital 2008. Anna is now working as a Research Fellow at the Department Dynamics of Communication, Knowledge and Spatial Development which is part of the Leibniz Institute for Regional Development and Structural Planning, Germany.

Dr Ana Rita Sampaio, Portugal
Dr Ana Rita Sampaio completed her PhD in Tourism in 2009. Ana’s PhD examined the reasons why small firms in tourism exhibit different levels of environmental engagement. She is now working as a Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Centre for Geographical Studies at the University of Lisbon, Portugal.

Dr Karen Schwartz, UK
Dr Karen Schwartz completed her PhD in Tourism in 2008. Her PhD examined how tour operators can work with suppliers to improve environmental, economic and socio-cultural performance. Karen worked as a Lecturer in Tourism at the Business School, Nottingham University, UK.

Dr Valerio Simoni, Portugal
Dr Valerio Simoni originally from Switzerland completed his PhD in Tourism in 2010. His PhD was entitled Touristic Encounters in Cuba: Informality, Ambiguity, and Emerging Relationships. After finishing his PhD, Valerio took on a Post-Doctoral Researcher position at the Centre for Research in Anthropology (CRIA-IUL), Lisbon, Portugal.

Dr Andreas Walmsley, UK
Dr Andreas Walmsley completed his PhD in Tourism in 2008. His thesis was entitled The Impact of Tourism SME Placements on Career Intentions. Andreas has previously been working as a Lecturer at York St John University and a Responsible Tourism Course Leader at Leeds Beckett University. Andreas currently works as a Senior Lecturer Business Management at York St John University, UK.

Professor Dr Desmond Wee, Germany
Dr Desmond Wee finished his PhD in 2012. His research focused on the construction of "authentic" identities through a touristic gaze with reference to Singapore and its consumption of "Englishness". He is currently working as Professor of Tourism Sciences and Spatial Theories at the Karl International University in Karlsruhe, Germany.