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Centre for Sport Performance Studentships

Centre for Sports Performance

A biomechanical analysis of the golf swing to investigate technique and movement variability
Currently there is a lack of consensus within the golf coaching manuals and golf magazines around how the golf swing should be performed. Authors advocate using elite player swings as templates for recommendations for correct technique. This contrasts with contemporary scientific thinking about skill technique and movement performance (Bartlett et al., 2007; Preatoni et al., 2013).

The golf swing consists of a complex sequence of movements and there are many combinations of body tilt, bend and rotation that can produce the same club orientation and velocity: the well-known problem of motor redundancy (Bernstein, 1967). Different styles, or techniques, of golf swing have been identified in golf coaching literature (Ball & Best, 2007) yet little scientific work has been performed in this respect (Ball & Best, 2007). The research would need to emphasise multiple, single individual research paradigms that evaluate individual ‘style’ within particular techniques, while also identifying variables that characterise a particular technique as being distinct.

This research will investigate concepts of inter- and intra-subject differences in technique and movement variability in the golf swing in order to better understand and ultimately help improve coaches’ knowledge of different swing styles. To achieve these aims the PhD programme will incorporate the use of traditional biomechanical data capture techniques (e.g. 3-D kinematics and kinetics) but will require the investigation of technique and movement variability with more complex mathematical techniques to be developed in conjunction with the successful student. Analysis work will involve developing proficiency in modelling software such as Visual 3D or other similar programmes. Development of programming skills on platforms such as Matlab will be encouraged to streamline the data analysis aspects of the project.

Please contact Dr Catherine Tucker for further details
Tel: +44(0)113 8126703
Applications of principles and training of apnoea
Competitive apnoea involves participants holding their breath in water for extended periods.  Competitive disciplines challenge (i) maximum duration of breath hold, (ii) the horizontal distance covered whilst immersed and holding breath in a swimming pool and (iii) the maximum depth achieved whilst diving.  Training for apnoea improves the performance of apnoea by increasing haematocrit (Hct) and erythropoietin (EPO) concentration, haemoglobin mass (Hb) and lung volumes (Schagatay et al. 2007, de Bruijn et al. 2008, Richardson et al. 2008).  Furthermore blood acidosis and oxidative stress are reduced following three months of apnoea training. These adaptations suggest that apnoea training may be an effective alternative to hypobaric and/or normobaric hypoxia to increase aerobic and/or anaerobic performance.  Recent studies have observed that repeated apnoeas increased EPO concentration by 24% with peak values achieved 3 hours following the last apnoea and return to baseline 2 hours later (de Bruijn et al. 2008).  These responses are similar to those following exposure to high altitude where  6 hours of altitude (at 1,780m) showed an increase of 24% in EPO (Eckardt et al. 1989).  This evidence suggests that apnoea training may provide a method of acclimatisation for the conditions experienced during high altitude mountaineering.  

To-date no study has investigated the possible application of apnoea training as an alternative to hypoxic training for altitude performance.  It is envisaged that the study will include comparisons of acclimation methods including apnoea and normobaric hypoxia.  Evaluation of haematological and physiological markers in relation to the training methods and exercise performance is likely to feature strongly in the work.

Please contact  Dr Matthew Barlow for further details
Tel: +44(0)113 8124022
Beetroot Juice Supplementation and Physiological Changes at High Altitude
Mountaineering is a very popular pasttime, with hundreds of thousands of recreational climbers testing themselves at high altitude all over the world each year. The reduced partial pressure of oxygen with altitude exposure is associated with physiological changes including cardiac and endocrine responses and hydration status to name a few. Prolonged exposure to altitude is accompanied by gradual acclimatisation, prominently cardio-pulmonary and haematological adaptations, increasing the delivery of oxygen to the tissue. This is associated with attenuated symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS).  

Nitric oxide (NO) regulates physiological processes in the human body. Evidence suggests that NO plays an important role in altitude acclimatisation. Lowlanders exposed to altitude initially exhibit reduced concentrations of exhaled NO, with the magnitude of this decline associated with susceptibility to altitude illness (Droma et al., 2002). With acclimatisation, lowlanders demonstrate an increase in NO production (Levett et al., 2011). The adaptive response to hypoxia is particularly prominent in Tibetans who have greater plasma nitrite concentrations, indicative of elevated whole-body NO production (Erzurum et al., 2007), and higher exhaled NO relative to lowlanders (Beall et al., 2001). Therefore, given the importance of NO during altitude acclimatisation, it is tempting to speculate that interventions increasing NO availability, especially during acute (i.e. prior to acclimatisation) and chronic altitude exposure (i.e. during acclimatisation), may be advantageous and attenuate AMS. One possible means of eliciting this effect is via dietary nitrate supplementation (i.e Beetroot juice), which has been shown to increase plasma nitrate concentrations.  This research would be carried out in the University’s normobaric hypoxic chamber, which can simulate altitudes up to 7500m.

Beall, C.M., Laskowski, D., Strohl, K.P., Soria, R., Villena, M., Vargas, E., Alarcon, A.M., Gonzales, C. & Erzurum, S.C. (2001) Pulmonary nitric oxide in mountain dwellers.Nature, 414 (6862), pp.411–412.

Droma, Y., Hanaoka, M., Ota, M., Katsuyama, Y., Koizumi, T., Fujimoto, K., Kobayashi, T. & Kubo, K. (2002) Positive Association of the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphisms With High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema. Circulation, 106 (7), pp.826–830.

Erzurum, S.C., Ghosh, S., Janocha, A.J., Xu, W., Bauer, S., Bryan, N.S., Tejero, J., Hemann, C., Hille, R., Stuehr, D.J. & others (2007) Higher blood flow and circulating NO products offset high-altitude hypoxia among Tibetans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104 (45), pp.17593–17598.

Levett, D.Z., Fernandez, B.O., Riley, H.L., Martin, D.S., Mitchell, K., Leckstrom, C.A., Ince, C., Whipp, B.J., Mythen, M.G., Montgomery, H.E., Grocott, M.P. & Feelisch, M. (2011) The role of nitrogen oxides in human adaptation to hypoxia. Scientific Reports, 1. Available from: <> [Accessed 25 July 2014].

Please contact  Dr John O’Hara for further details
Tel: +44(0)113 8125239

Carbohydrate Dose Response: Substrate Utilisation, Regulation of Muscle Glycogen Metabolism and Endurance Performance
Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion can delay the onset of fatigue and enhance endurance performance (Jeukendrup et al., 1997). This can be explained by the oxidation of ingested CHO providing a true exogenous source of fuel, that can maintain high plasma glucose concentrations and a high rate of CHO oxidation late in exercise when muscle glycogen concentrations are low (Coyle et al., 1986). Even though CHO consumption per se has been well researched, there are several aspects that have not been fully explored.

The dose of CHO required to optimise substrate utilisation and exercise performance is still a matter of debate, particularly with regards mode of exercise, timing of ingestion, training status, and environment. The literature is contrasting with some reporting ~78g per hour of CHO to be optimal (Smith et al., 2012) while Newell et al. (2014) suggest lower amounts (~40g per hour). There is a need to develop a better understanding of the effect of CHO dose on substrate utilisation in relation to different exercise performance scenarios.
The mechanisms through which enzymes regulate muscle glycogen utilisation in response to exercise and CHO ingestion per se remains poorly understood. Immunofluorescence microscopy has provided a critical insight into the control of glycogen metabolism and intramuscular triglyceride utilisation by regulatory enzymes (Prats et al., 2005; Prats et al., 2006; Prats et al., 2013; Prats et al., 2009). However, it is unknown how varied carbohydrate doses during and after endurance-type exercise affect the cellular distribution of the regulatory enzymes, their phosphorylation status and their colocalisation with additional regulatory proteins and cellular structures.

The PhD is likely to investigate the effects of varied CHO dose, on CHO oxidation and the regulation of muscle glycogen metabolism. It is anticipated that 13C mass isotope methods and immunofluorescence microscopy will be used.
Please contact  Dr John O’Hara for further details
Tel: +44(0)113 8125239
Developing adolescent rugby players’ coping skills: Psychosocial aspects and intervention effects
This project builds on an existing collaboration between Leeds Beckett University, Yorkshire Carnegie RUFC and local independent schools that currently focuses on physiological demands of training and competing in adolescent rugby players. This research adds a psychological arm to the current research and will explore how adolescent athletes’ coping strategies and effectiveness develop, with specific emphasis on the influence of social networks, and will examine the effectiveness of coping interventions to help athletes develop coping skills. In doing so, the research will adopt a holistic view of stress and address a number of novel research avenues within this field.

The research programme will incorporate a range of methods, and, to accommodate the dynamic and recursive nature of the phenomenon under inquiry, the studies within this research programme will employ a longitudinal approach. Key methods will include season long audio diaries and player interviews. Audio diaries will be subject to linguistic analysis, representing a novel analysis approach in this field. Intervention effectiveness will be explored using a multiple baseline intervention study, incorporating quantitative measures of primary outcomes.

Please contact Dr Joanne Hudson for further details
Tel: +44(0)113 8123528
How do athletes make decisions regarding nutritional supplement use? Generating an evidence-base to inform education
Nutritional Supplement (NS) use is ubiquitous in sport with athletes looking for performance gains or ways to cope with heightened training demands. Such use involves a balance between potential benefits (e.g., meeting acute energy needs) and potential risks (e.g., inadvertent doping). Despite the prevalence of NS use, the ergogenic effects of many NS are contested and good evidence for efficacy in line with bold marketing claims is rare. The misuse of NS has raised serious concerns at a global level (e.g., World Anti-Doping Agency, International Olympic Committee, European Commission) and it is estimated that over the last two years 40% of UK Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs), are the result of NS use (UK Anti-Doping, 2014). Typically NS use occurs without clinical guidance from trained dieticians and sports nutrition professionals (Waddington, Malcolm, Roderick, & Naik, 2005) or adequate product information (e.g., Petróczi, Naughton, Mazanov, Holloway, & Bingham, 2007).

In light of the challenges outlined above, a systematic programme of research is warranted to examine NS knowledge and factors influencing the decision to use NS in sport. In wider society, reasons for consuming NS are often complex, combining social, psychological, knowledge and economic factors (Connor et al. 2001). With a lack of primary prevention of NS use in place it is important to understand the reasons athletes are willing to overlook the potential risks of NS use. Furthermore, we need to gain an in-depth understanding of how athletes - across the lifespan - view enhancement through supplementation in order to target prevention programmes accordingly. Educational efforts focused on addressing the ‘need’ for NS, alongside the ‘risk’ may delay or curtail the formation of a belief system in which performance enhancement and chemical assistance are symbiotic.

This project builds on Leeds Beckett University’s established reputation as a leading research centre addressing the issue of doping and nutritional supplement behaviours in sport. In line with our strategic aim to generate a robust evidence-base to inform Clean Sport policy and practice, this PhD programme addresses the absence of evidence regarding factors influencing athletes’ decision to use NS. As such, the research findings are likely to be of interest to researchers, practitioners, national and international sporting bodies and anti-doping organisations alike.

Please contact Professor Susan Backhouse for further details
Tel: +44(0)113 8124684
Mental Toughness in Sport & Exercise: Verification and Application of Key Constructs
Mental Toughness (MT) is a well-established yet hotly-debated concept within the sport psychology literature. For the last 15 years or so, MT has been studied in great depth, with a range of definitions and measurement tools having been postulated and developed (e.g., Connaughton et al., 2010; Jones et al., 2002; Sheard et al., 2009). However, MT remains an essentially contested concept (e.g., Gucciardi et al., 2012) and, therefore, a popular topic for contemporary investigation.

Although the positive association between MT and sport performance has been frequently reported in the literature (e.g., Connaughton et al., 2010; Crust & Clough, 2005), there has been little examination of the extent to which MT might impact on physical health and/or psychological well-being. Moreover, the mechanisms which underpin the link between MT and peak performance in achievement contexts such as sport have not been sufficiently identified or explained by the research published to-date. Additionally, the degree to which MT can be trained and developed as an attribute or characteristic has been often deliberated yet repeatedly neglected within the published literature. Research which addresses the above issues would have important implications for a wide range of stakeholders (e.g., high-performing athletes, exercise and health professionals) regarding the application of interventions designed to harness the benefits of MT within the contexts of sport, exercise, and public health.

It is anticipated that the programme of research will primarily consist of experimental research designs and quantitative data collection/analysis techniques. Qualitative research methods, although unlikely to be conducted frequently, may be deemed appropriate to answer specific research questions.

Aims of the proposed research:
(1) Explore, critically assess, and potentially validate existing constructs reported to be closely associated with MT;
(2) Identify links between MT and psychological health/well-being, specifically within sport and exercise contexts;
(3) Develop and evaluate interventions that are intended to address practical implications of MT for sport performance, exercise engagement, and wider public health issues associated with physical inactivity.

Please contact  Dr Andrew Manley for further details
Tel: +44(0)113 8124717
Neuromuscular characteristics and technique factors that determine and control effective pedal force distribution in high performance track and road cycling
Participation in cycling for recreation and racing has increased substantially in recent years with the British Cycling team having record successes on the road and track. There has also been an increase in cycling-related scientific research that has in turn provided information for an increased number of sports science practitioners working within the sport at various levels. However, despite this increase in research, only a small proportion has been orientated towards the biomechanics of cycling and as such many performance related questions remain unanswered.

The aim of this research study is to investigate the relationships between pedal force profiles, cycling specific muscle characteristics and aspects of track and road performance, and identify factors that determine the strength of the relationships. The study will also explore various practical interventions for changing force profiles and muscle characteristics. The project builds on the existing work taking place on cycling biomechanics and the successful participant would be integrated with other research and support in this area.

Please contact Dr Athanassios Bissas for further details
Tel: +44(0)113 8123598
Neuromuscular function and musculoskeletal health in retired rugby players
The sport of rugby provides many benefits for those taking part – for some it’s a career, for all it’s about friendship, enjoyment, fitness and a lifelong love of the game. Along the way, as with any physical pursuits, there are knocks, niggles and injuries – some more severe than others. Injury risk has increased in parallel with the introduction of professionalism to the sport, and work completed so far in the Centre for Sports Performance has revealed a high prevalence of vertebral fracture in current professional rugby players. However, there remains widespread uncertainty regarding the extent to which playing rugby affects players over the longer term - for better or worse. Without this knowledge, we can’t maximise the benefits, while minimising the risks.

This PhD will investigate the long-term effects of rugby on neuromuscular function and musculoskeletal health in retired international/national and community level rugby players in the UK, in comparison with age-matched controls who are retired athletes from non-contact sports, and non-athletes.  Within group comparisons will be made between codes and levels of play for rugby. Contributing to the UK extension of the IRB and AUT Rugby Health Study, the expected impact from this work is significant in that findings will inform the IRB and governing bodies on any long term implications of playing rugby, so that strategies can be put in place to ensure that benefits outweigh any risks.

Please contact Dr Karen Hind for further details
Tel: +44(0)113 8129110
Occupational Stress, Health, and Well-Being Among Sport Coaches
There are 1.1 million sport coaches in the United Kingdom who deliver sport to 10 million participants each year (Sports Coach UK, 2015). Worldwide, football coaches, for example, are responsible for unlocking the athletic potential of 269 million players. To facilitate optimal performance, coaches require refined skills for coping with stressful events and for maintaining their health and well-being. While the demanding nature of the coaching profession is well known (see e.g., Knight, Reade, Selzler, & Rogers, 2013), little is known about coaches’ specific stress experiences. These experiences lay the foundations for coaches’ health and well-being (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) and, therefore, academic attention in this area should be of paramount importance. Some studies have explored the stressors that coaches experience (e.g., Thelwell, Weston, Greenlees, and Hutchings, 2008) and the coping strategies that they use (e.g., Olusoga, Butt, Maynard, & Hays, 2010; Thelwell, Weston, & Greenlees, 2010) but this research has not enhanced knowledge of the complex nature of stress transactions and related health and well-being outcomes (cf. Lazarus, 1999). This information provides a compelling suggestion that the study of stress, health, and well-being in coaches should be a priority for sport psychology researchers.

A systematic programme of research is proposed to develop knowledge relating to coaches’ stress experiences, their occupational health, and their psychological well-being. This will provide an evidence-based platform for the development of research in the area and presents a talented and committed candidate with a novel and exciting opportunity. In light of the potential application of the findings, the research is likely to be of interest to researchers, practitioners, and National Governing Bodies alike.

Please contact Dr Faye Didymus for further details
Tel: +44(0)113 8126709
Optimising bone strength and reducing fracture risk in men and women jockeys
Despite the growth of professionalism and widening of participation in horse racing, in comparison to other sports, jockeys remain under-researched. An ongoing challenge exists within the sport in that weight management needs to be balanced with optimising health and performance. Current weight management techniques used by jockeys can lead to weight loss at a costly detriment to bone health and fracture risk. Essential bone anabolic micronutrients such as calcium and vitamin D are found to be particularly deficient in elite jockeys. Exacerbating  the problem, fracture risk in jockeys is elevated regardless of bone strength, due to the nature of the sport where falling from the horse is common.

This PhD will seek to determine the efficacy and acceptability of strategies to improve bone strength and reduce fracture injury risk in men and women jockeys. The successful applicant will be based in the Centre for Sports Performance of Carnegie Faculty. Primary outcomes of the intervention trial will include dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Lunar iDXA, GE Healthcare, WI) of bone mineral density, hip bone geometry and vertebral fracture to determine baseline bone status and any changes in bone after a period of intervention. Bone metabolism will be assessed using biochemical markers of bone turnover. Vitamin D levels will  be assessed using serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D and total body water will be assessed using our novel resonant cavity perturbation device. Acceptability of the interventions amongst jockeys will also be evaluated. It is anticipated that the findings will have impact within the sport, and potential for translation to other sports and clinical scenarios where weight management is common practice.

Please contact Dr Karen Hind for further details
Tel: +44(0)113 8129110
‘Play clean, win clean’: Developing a morality-based intervention in sport
Antisocial behaviour refers to acts that aim to harm or disadvantage another person. Such behaviours in sport include deliberately hurting an opponent or teammate as well as cheating related conduct, such as doping. Such behaviours in sport are prevalent and topical, particularly given that such behavioural tendencies could potentially be transferred and used in other contexts. The spectre of such antisocial behaviours casts a shadow over sport and fundamentally challenges the integrity of all involved. Therefore, research systematically investigating ways to intervene to reduce such behaviours in sport is an important avenue of enquiry.

Moral behaviour in sport has driven considerable research attention in recent years. Recent research has highlighted a number of social-cognitive factors that can either facilitate or inhibit antisocial behaviour in sport. Though, most previous research has been cross-sectional in nature, recent experimental work is advancing our understanding of the direction of these relationships. However, despite this accumulating evidence, there is a lack of research that has tested whether an intervention that may target such factors could help to tackle the development of antisocial behaviour in sport. To this end, this PhD will aim to design, develop and refine an appropriate social-cognitive based intervention which will be piloted and systemically tested to determine its effectiveness in reducing youth athletes’ antisocial tendencies and promote prosocial interactions in sport. This PhD will suit an enthusiastic postgraduate student aiming to pursue research in sport and exercise psychology with a potential interest in morality, emotion and sport performance.

Please contact Dr Nick Stanger for further details
Tel: +44(0)113 8123525
Quantifying the Explosive Characteristics of Elite Soccer Players: Implications for Training Prescription Guidelines
The proposed project will quantify the movement characteristics of elite players using appropriate tracking devices to gain an insight into optimising training to improve performance and reduce the propensity of injury. This is an interdisciplinary project that evaluates the explosive actions of elite players (biomechanical), translating these patterns into specific training protocols (physiological).
There is scant research relating to the explosive actions of elite players and even less research on translating time-motion data into training and testing guidelines, especially for explosive metrics. Some training recommendations that are commonly used with elite soccer players are out-dated and not based on modern objective time-motion data. Thus further work is warranted in this area. Gaining such information would be advantageous given that most critical moments during match play are explosive and that high-intensity training modes that mimic these actions are crucial to the conditioning practices of the modern player.
The methodological approach might encompass three phases. Phase 1: Collecting elite match performance data with special reference to explosive movement patterns. Phase 2: Translating the time-motion data into various explosive drills and quantifying the physiological response (heart rate, blood lactate concentrations, RPE), time-motion characteristics (portable global positioning system devices) and reproducibility of these drills. Phase 3: An intervention study will be conducted on elite players using these drills as the training stimulus to assess their impact on physical capacity indices using a standard battery of soccer-specific tests.

Please contact  Dr Paul Bradley for further details
Tel: +44(0)113 8123323
The Benefits of Mindfulness Training on Motor Performance under Pressure
Sub-optimal performance under pressure is anecdotally evident and empirically investigated across a wide range of sport and professional settings. Theoretical explanations of the phenomenon, for the most part, agree that the experience of high levels of state anxiety disturb the proficient operation of attention regulation processes (Eysenck & Calvo, 1992; Masters, 1992). Thus targeted interventions designed to increase the resilience of attention regulation processes to the effect of pressure should theoretically result in optimal performances.

Mindfulness was originally defined by Kabat-Zinn (2003) as a psychological capacity to purposefully pay attention in the present moment with a non-judgmental attitude. Mindfulness interventions, which incorporate metacognitive awareness training, have shown to have a positive impact on attention control and emotion regulation (Chambers et al., 2008; Jha et al., 2007), and to reduce emotional reactivity towards threatening stimuli, resulting in optimal decision-making processes (Kirk et al., 2011). When analysing mindfulness in the sport context, evidence mainly based in self-report measures suggests that mindfulness is associated with positive psychological outcomes among athletes. However, little is known about the effects of mindfulness interventions on objective assessments of performance (Pineau et al., 2014) under pressure. To consider this gap in the literature, the current project will investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness training on the performance of motor skills under pressure.

The project integrates understanding of emotional, cognitive, and behavioural measures of performance in pressure environments, and contributes to a fast developing research theme within the Institute for Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure at Leeds Beckett University.  Outcomes of the project will make a valuable theoretical contribution to the psychology literature and will simultaneously inform practitioners across a wide range of motor performance domains.

Please contact Dr Mariana Kaiseler for further details
Tel: +44(0)113 8124026
The effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion and Exercise Intensity on Substrate Oxidation and the Regulation of Muscle Glycogen Metabolism
Oxidation of carbohydrates (CHO) relative to fat progressively increases with the intensity of exercise. In addition CHO ingestion can delay the onset of fatigue and enhance endurance performance (Jeukendrup et al., 1997). This can be explained by the oxidation of ingested CHO providing a true exogenous source of fuel that in conjunction with liver glycogenolysis can maintain high plasma glucose concentrations and support high rates of CHO oxidation. Even though CHO consumption per se. has been well researched, there are several aspects that have not been fully explored.

The literature supports combining different CHO to optimise exogenous oxidation rates. However, these studies have not assessed these strategies with regard to intensity of exercise and the associated use of liver and muscle glycogen. Furthermore, studies typically provide the CHO load directly prior to and/or during exercise. The type and magnitude of response may be different if the CHO load was ingested within the hour before exercise as well as during exercise.

The mechanisms by which enzymes control glycogen metabolism in response to exercise and CHO ingestion per se remains poorly understood. Immunofluorescence microscopy has provided insights into the regulation of glycogen metabolism by glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) in response to CHO ingestion and exercise (Prats et al., 2005; Prats et al., 2013; Prats et al., 2009). However, it is unknown how varied exercise intensities and carbohydrate ingestion affect the cellular distribution of GS and GP, their phosphorylation status and their co-localisation with additional regulatory enzymes and cellular structures.

This PhD is likely to investigate the effects of type and timing of CHO ingestion during exercise of varying intensity and its effects on CHO oxidation and the regulation of muscle glycogen metabolism. It is anticipated that 13C mass isotope methods and immunofluorescence microscopy will be used.

Please contact Professor Roderick King for further details
Tel: +44(0)113 8121707
The effects of verbal sledging on sport performance
Verbal sledging in sport is a topical, which can be considered a morally questionable behaviour. It has been indicated that sledging can comprise from a relatively mild gibing or banter to derogatory and malicious comments as well as boastful speech that is intended to demoralise, intimidate or humiliate opponents (Kerr & Grange, 2009; Rainey & Granito, 2010). Sledging is typically used to provide an advantage over one’s opponents and some evidence suggests it may result in adverse effects on the recipients’ performance. That said, it has been also proposed verbal sledging can also be motivational for the recipient that may facilitate their focus, and in turn, their performance. However, despite the prevalence and potential implications that sledging can have on sport performance, very little empirical research has examined the effects of sledging. To this end, this PhD will aim to systemically investigate the effects of sledging on performance as well as examine potential mediators and moderators.

This PhD will suit an enthusiastic postgraduate student aiming to pursue research in sport and exercise psychology with a potential interest in morality, emotion and sport performance who also possesses interests and strength in quantitative research methods.

Please contact Dr Nick Stanger for further details
Tel: +44(0)113 8123525